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History of Environmental Change in the Sistan Basin

The Sistan area is located at the tail end of a large closed inland (endorheic) basin, in one of the driest regions of the world. It is comprised of three geographical sub-units: (i) the upper plain of the inland delta of the Helmand (Hirmand) river, which is mostly drained and used for agriculture; (ii) the wetlands (Hamoons) covering the lower delta plain and (iii) a hypersaline lake (Gowd-e-Zareh) in the lowest part of the basin, which collects the overspill from the wetlands and – in case of extreme floods – from the Helmand River. There is no outflow from this terminal lake; water is lost from Gowd-e-Zareh only by evaporation....


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